updated: 24-Mar-2011

 Copan for Windows

Field Bearings Processing

  1. Process Field Bearings
  2. Field Bearings Entry
  3. Field Files
  1. Field Bearings File Example
  2. Notes

Use this module to process raw field data from hand-held survey instruments such as compass, inclinometer and rangefinder. Copan can process the data — azimuths (or bearings), vertical angles, slope distances, and instrument and signal (or target) heights — whether concerning one or more connected traverses, independent radial surveys, or combinations thereof, to calculate new points. Data may come from data logger files or be manually input from field books. Traverses may be adjusted for coordinate misclosure and new points may be saved.

Note that ordinary total station data, intersections, resections, and redundant observations (other than at the end of a traverse) are not handled here. (For ordinary field data, use the § Field Data Processing module. For intersections, use the § COGO Calculations module. For resections, use the § Field Resections Processing module.) And this module is best for raw, field traverses with slope distances, not for reduced, map traverses with horizontal distances. (For such needs, use the § Map Traverses or § Map Checks modules.)

Also note that, while there are certain similarities between the Map Traverse and the Field Data modules, there are various operational differences (other than the type of map/survey data involved). If you are familiar with one and new to the other, please study the appropriate manual and dialog carefully.

1. To Process Field Bearings

From the Calculation menu, choose Process Field Bearings.

  1. Calculation | Process Field Bearings...
  2. Optionally Load... a Field Data File. (See § Field Files.)
  3. Edit data in the big edit box as required. NB: To move the text cursor: Use the arrow, Tab, or Enter keys, or the mouse pointer. To manually insert a tab, copy and paste an existing one.
  4. To enter setups and observations data, use the mini edit boxes and the relevant Insert button. To enter project, instrument and scales data (such as magnetic-grid north correction), use the supplementary dialog via the More data button.
  5. Optionally Export.. the Field data file in (the BitWise Ideas survey network least-squares adjustment program) GeoLab IOB format.
  6. Save the Field file for reuse.
  7. Optionally change the precision of displayed/listed distances and coordinates via Settings....
  8. Optionally Scale extended-code sizes. This will scale any observation P-codes that are sized according to the rules in § Point Codes by a Units Factor you have set.
  9. Calculate (or OK) to process the field data, adjusting the traverses if appropriate (see § Traverse Processing).
  10. To graphically view the shots: Close the Info Display window if it is open, and minimize or move aside — but do not close — the Field Data window.
  11. Optionally List the field Data, the Calcs, or the Points that have been computed.
  12. Optionally choose whether to Renumber new points or replace existing points (see § Point Renumbering or Replacement) and Save the Points that have been computed.

To process field survey data: enter setups and observations in the boxes at the bottom, and click Calculate.click for larger view

2. Field Bearings Entry

Setups and Observations Data Entry

Project, Instrument and Scales Data Entry

Keep these three types of data on separate lines: Be sure to use the proper correction. In most cases, the default values are appropriate.

3. Field Files

Copan can read field data in different industry formats as well as its own. A native Copan field file consists of numerous Setup and Observation data lines and may contain comment lines, as well as Project, Instrument or Scales data lines, if required. Each data line consists of various tab-separated attribute = value pairs. See § Field Files for a more detailed description of different raw field file types and Copan's field file format.

4. Field Bearings File Example

In this example, a two-leg, closed traverse with side-shots is preceded by an azimuth correction, and codes and notes have been omitted for brevity.
              AC= 5.24
at= 382                                            HI=  1.55
    to= 800   az= 235.42   VC= 90.18   SD=   4.6   HS=  1.58
    to= 801   az= 226.06   VC= 90.24   SD=  22.2   HS=  1.58
    to= 802   az= 219.54   VC= 90.48   SD=  25.6   HS=  1.58
    to= 804   az= 229.30   VC= 90.36   SD=  24.6   HS=  1.58
at= 804                                            HI=  1.55
    to= 805   az= 194.00   VC= 90.36   SD=  35.0   HS=  1.58
    to= 806   az= 134.18   VC= 90.06   SD=   7.8   HS=  1.58
    to= 807   az= 129.54   VC= 90.18   SD=  17.8   HS=  1.58
    to= 387   az= 133.00   VC= 89.36   SD=  31.0   HS=  1.58
    end= closed

4. Notes

updated: 24-Mar-2011