updated: 30-May-2011
You can enter bearings explicitly, in whole-circle format or in quadrant format, or implicitly as being the bearing between two specified coordfile points.
You can even include a +
or –
operator in an expression to add a correction or turned angle to, or subtract from, a bearing.
A correction, turned angle, or whole-circle bearing is always positive clockwise and negative anticlockwise.
Finally, unless the appropriate Program Settings are made, angle units are degrees-minutes-seconds, and bearings are north-based (i.e., north=0).
(Note that while lay people may know bearings as directions, in surveying, a direction
usually means an arbitrary angle reading, where an angle is the difference between two directions. Even so, we use cardinal direction
below to have the common meaning.)
If you measure angles in degrees-minutes-seconds (i.e., 1 circle = 360°), when entering bearings or angles, always use the format dd.mmss
.
For example, you must enter 24°52'10.5" as 24.52105
and you must enter 30' as 0.30
(or just .3
).
If you measure angles in gons or grads (i.e., 1 circle = 400^{g}), just enter bearings or angles as is
(e.g., enter 24.82105^{g} as 24.82105
).
In these quasi-formal syntax definitions, a defined term (outdented) is followed by its definition (indented), with alternative definitions on separate lines or separated by vertical bars. Puzzled? See the Examples.
For the lower half of the table, assume that point 102 is at a bearing of exactly 035° from point 101.
Expression | Bearing | Explanation |
---|---|---|
210.5613
| 210°56'13" | explicit whole-circle bearing |
-10
| 350° | negative bearing, normalized |
24 - 2
| 022° | bearing, plus correction or turned angle |
s
| 180° | cardinal direction |
E - 10
| 080° | cardinal direction, plus correction or turned angle |
w+5
| 275° | cardinal direction, plus correction or turned angle |
n 35 W
| 325° | explicit quadrant bearing |
s 3 e +0.38
| 177°38' | quadrant bearing, plus correction or turned angle |
s 4 w
| 184° | quadrant bearing |
sw
| 225° | cardinal direction |
101, 102
| 035° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102 |
101, 102 .1
| 125° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 090° |
101, 102 .2
| 215° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 180° |
101, 102 .3
| 305° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 270° |
101, 102 + 10
| 045° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 10° |
101, 102 - 15
| 020° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, minus 15° |
, 102
| 035° | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102 |
, 102 .2
| 215° | implied bearing from point 102 to point 101 |
For the last two expressions, assume that 101
is already in an appropriate from-point field.
For the lower half of the table, assume that point 102 is at a bearing of exactly 035^{g} from point 101.
Expression | Bearing | Explanation |
---|---|---|
210.5613
| 210.5613^{g} | explicit whole-circle bearing |
-10
| 390^{g} | negative bearing, normalized |
24 - 2
| 022^{g} | bearing, plus correction or turned angle |
s
| 200^{g} | cardinal direction |
E - 10
| 090^{g} | cardinal direction, plus correction or turned angle |
w+5
| 305^{g} | cardinal direction, plus correction or turned angle |
n 35 W
| 365^{g} | explicit quadrant bearing |
s 3 e +0.38
| 197.38^{g} | quadrant bearing, plus correction or turned angle |
s 4 w
| 204^{g} | quadrant bearing |
sw
| 250^{g} | cardinal direction |
101, 102
| 035^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102 |
101, 102 .1
| 135^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 100^{g} |
101, 102 .2
| 235^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 200^{g} |
101, 102 .3
| 335^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 300^{g} |
101, 102 + 10
| 045^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, plus 10^{g} |
101, 102 - 15
| 020^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102, minus 15^{g} |
, 102
| 035^{g} | implied bearing from point 101 to point 102 |
, 102 .2
| 235^{g} | implied bearing from point 102 to point 101 |
For the last two expressions, assume that 101
is already in an appropriate from-point field.
updated: 30-May-2011