Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) Survey, NWT, 1985–1994

    Stevie T.(pilot), and Sego(engineer) doing the 100 hour inspection on Sunrise's 206, in 0C weather, Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, NT, 1991

    Stevie T.(pilot), and Sego(engineer) doing the 100 hour inspection on Sunrise's 206, in 0C weather, Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, NT, 1991

    Part of the Inuvialuit Atlas Plans (75720-10-CLSR-NT) done by W.G. Robinson, CLS

    Part of the Inuvialuit Atlas Plans (75720-10-CLSR-NT) done by W.G. Robinson, CLS

    C. Cryderman and T. Connolly waiting for the Helicopter to refuel at DeSalis Bay on Banks Island during the Inuvialuit Boundary survey, 1991

    C. Cryderman and T. Connolly waiting for the Helicopter to refuel at DeSalis Bay on Banks Island during the Inuvialuit Boundary survey, 1991

    On the Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary - near Horton River, NWT,  C.S. Cryderman (foreground), G.C. Friesen (background), 1988

    On the Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary - near Horton River, NWT, C.S. Cryderman (foreground), G.C. Friesen (background), 1988

    Horton River Camp overlooking

    Horton River Camp overlooking "Underhill Lake", NT, 1988

    Horton River camp with the

    Horton River camp with the "UnderHilton" (forground), NWT, 1988

    The last Inuvialuit  survey - The Winniatt Bay Adjustment Area, Underhill supplied project logisitical, field, and  CAD support on this survey by S. Hutchinson, CLS, of NRCan

    The last Inuvialuit survey - The Winniatt Bay Adjustment Area, Underhill supplied project logisitical, field, and CAD support on this survey by S. Hutchinson, CLS, of NRCan

    Part of the Winniatt Bay Adjustment Area, Underhill supplied project logisitical, field, and  CAD support on this survey by S. Hutchinson, CLS, of NRCan

    Part of the Winniatt Bay Adjustment Area, Underhill supplied project logisitical, field, and CAD support on this survey by S. Hutchinson, CLS, of NRCan

    C. Cryderman spotting for S. Jaksie (Sunrise pilot) preparing to sling tent trailer.  NWT, 1988

    C. Cryderman spotting for S. Jaksie (Sunrise pilot) preparing to sling tent trailer. NWT, 1988

    G.C. Friesen posting the Inuvialut Land Claim boundary near Horton River, NT, 1988

    G.C. Friesen posting the Inuvialut Land Claim boundary near Horton River, NT, 1988

    On the Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary - near Horton River, NWT, G.C. Friesen loading up the helicopter, 1988

    On the Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary - near Horton River, NWT, G.C. Friesen loading up the helicopter, 1988

    S. Jacksie (pilot) and W.G. Robinson getting water at the lake, near Horton River, NT, 1988

    S. Jacksie (pilot) and W.G. Robinson getting water at the lake, near Horton River, NT, 1988

    Underhill Horton River Camp with the end of

    Underhill Horton River Camp with the end of "Underhill" Lake in the background, NWT, 1988

    Twin Otter loading up to leave, at the Underhill Horton River camp,  Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary survey, 1988

    Twin Otter loading up to leave, at the Underhill Horton River camp, Inuvialuit Land Claim Boundary survey, 1988

    W.G. Robinson and G.C. Friesen on the Inuvialut Land Claim Boundary survey, 1988, the sign on the cook/calculation tent is the

    W.G. Robinson and G.C. Friesen on the Inuvialut Land Claim Boundary survey, 1988, the sign on the cook/calculation tent is the "Underhilton" - a play on words by Sunrise Helicopters who supplied the camp

    C. Cryderman hooking up tent trailer for slinging, near Horton River, NWT, 1988

    C. Cryderman hooking up tent trailer for slinging, near Horton River, NWT, 1988

The Claim


The IFA was signed in 1984. It represented the first modern treaty between the Federal Government, the Government of the Northwest Territories, and the Inuvialuit First Nation.

In exchange for ceding, releasing, and surrendering to Canada all of their aboriginal claims, rights, title, and interests, the Agreement provides the Inuvialuit of the Western Arctic with (among other things)

  • title to 91,000km2 (35,000 sq. mi.) of land,
  • joint management (with Canada) for land use, wildlife, environmental assessment, and water regulation,
  • wildlife harvesting rights,
  • financial compensation of $162 million, and
  • a share of government royalties for oil, gas, and mineral development on Crown Land. [48]

The Survey


The survey of the IFA boundaries represented the largest land surveys undertaken in Canada since the establishment of the township system in the prairie provinces and the turn of the 20th century. The boundaries of the claim were defined by meridians of longitude and chords of parallels of latitude.

The control survey for the boundary was the first to employ GPS positioning technology in Canada. Survey of the boundaries was done using conventional traversing, with monuments being placed at a spacing of no more than 1 km. Natural features crossing the boundaries were also located. By 1992, GPS was being used to check the existing control and set up intervisible control to facilitate faster and more direct running of the boundaries.

The surveys were carried out from 1985 to 1994. UGL completed 18 of these surveys, comprising over 2,000 km of boundaries. Eleven of the surveys were community based, while the remainder were camp based. Sunrise Helicopters of Innuvik supplied helicopter, camp and logistical support on all of the contracts. Underhill also compiled 2/3 of the Final Atlas Plans. These plans compiled all of the surveys into one set of plans.

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